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(1) The percentage of bone dry fiber found in a solution. (2) The percentage, by weight, of air-dry (or oven dry) fibrous material in a stock or stock suspension. It is also called density or concentration.


A desk-Iike table or structure containing control elements such as start and stop buttons for operating equipment.

Control Box

A remotely located box used to operate equipment.

Control Stationecs

The CONTROL STATIONECS governs the control of the pneumatic actuators. Each actuator is controlled with an I/P-converter with a control signal of 40 – 200 kPa (6 – 30 PSI). Setpoints are sent from the Integrated Process Station (IPS) using measurement system data.

Control Valve

A device used to restrict the flow of a fluid to control the flow to a specified rate, normally operated by means of automatic equipment.

Converting Paper

A process of converting the original paper into another one with different characteristics.


A mechanical device, such as a belt, screw, chain, or bucket elevator used to transport material.

Copy Paper

Uncoated paper in woodfree or wood-containing varieties. It can be white or multicolored and has a DIN A4 and DIN A3 format or legal or letter size.


Defects in sheet generally caused by uneven caliper.


Chemical action on metal, forming rust, scale, pits, etc., wears away the metal and damages equipment.

Corrugating Medium

A paperboard used by corrugating plants to form the corrugated or fluted component for making corrugated combined board, corrugated wrapping, and the like. It is usually made from chemical or semi chemical wood pulps, straw or reclaimed paper stock on cylinder or fourdrinier machines in nominal grade weights of 26 Ib./M sg. ft. and approximately nine points thickness although heavier weights are sometimes used.

Couch Roll

"(1) A large hollow roll with holes drilled over the entire shell. The wire passes over it and water is removed from the sheet by vacuum applied to the roll. (2) Roll used to separate wet paper web from the ""wire""."

Counter Rolls

Rolls of paper which may be used in dispensers on the counters of retail stores, generally 0 inches in diameter in various widths.


The connection of the drive motor with the drive shaft.


Mechanical device used in moving large and heavy objects such as reels of paper and press rolls.


The process of crowding a sheet of paper on a roll using a doctor, thereby producing an effect simulating crepe. Semi-creped or primary creped or machine-creped paper is produced by a doctor blade on the paper machine (usually located on the last press or first drier, and, sometimes, for special effects, about halfway along the drier section). The percentage of crepe is usually low. Secondary creped or water-creped paper is produced as a converting operation, the paper being moistened and passed over a roll equipped with a doctor. Extremely high percentages of crepe can be achieved by this process. Modifications of it permit cross- directional creping and diagonal creping, sometimes called an all-directional stretch. Dry creping is a process in which a dry sheet is removed from a Yankee drier by a doctor blade.

Cross Direction

(1) The direction of the paper at right angles to the machine direction. (2) The dimension in a piece of paper at right angles to the direction of the grain.


The difference in diameter between the middle and ends of a press roll or calender roll necessary to allow for deflection so that the nip pressure will be uniform over the full width of the press or calender. The increase in diameter of the middle over the ends expressed in thousands of an inch is called the crown of the roll.


A term applied to paper, the formation of which has been broken, by running it too wet under the dandy roll, through the presses, or with too much moisture through the calender.


A defect in machine-made papers caused by excessive pressure or moisture at the dandy, couch, or press rolls, characterized by a mottled or cloudy appearance. Crushing by excessive pressure in the calenders is called blackening.